Coronavirus and COVID-19

As we all know, Coronavirus made the world stop. Corona Virus is a common virus that develops an infection in the upper throat, nose, or sinuses.

Earlier Coronaviruses are typical viruses and not dangerous to affect people that much that cause people to die. But after the China outbreak in December 2019, the WHO (World Health Organization) identified a more robust version of Coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2(SARS-CoV2). This virus gives birth to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

What is COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease, 2019)?

Disease caused by the respiratory tract Infection is called Covid19 or Coronavirus illness in 2019. It causes infection in your upper respiratory tract, i.e., throat, nose, and sinuses or lower respiratory tract, i.e., windpipe and lungs.

Covid-19 outbreak spreading very fast in all parts of the world. As we already know, coronaviruses mainly spread through person-to-person contacts. Infection due to Coronavirus is mild to severe.

 Human Coronavirus are of seven types. Not all Coronavirus is a danger for humanity.

Four out of seven human coronavirus products the mild symptoms like the common cold. 

1.  Human Coronavirus OC43: Human Coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) infects humans and cattle is a member of Betacoronavirus 1. it comes from Betacoronavirus genus . HCoV-OC43 subgenus is Embecovirus. Main symptom of this virus is common cold.

2.  Human Coronavirus HKU1: Human Coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is very similar to Human Coronavirus OC43 (75% identical to the OC43 genome). This Coronavirus originated from mice. Its main symptoms are common cold, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis. It originated from Honk Kong in January 2005.

3.  Human Coronavirus 229E: Human and bats get infected by Human Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). It comes from genus Alphacoronavirus. HCoV-229E subgenus is Duvinacovirus. This virus is also responsible for the common cold.

4. Human Coronavirus NL63:In late 2004, First case of  Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) identified in Netherlands .This virus is also a member of Alphacoronavirus (α-CoV). These virus symptoms are mild to severe. In upper respiratory tract infections (mild to moderate), it affects nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. And in lower respiratory tract infections (severe), it affects the lung, abscess, and acute bronchiolitis.

Remaining three coronaviruses have potentially intense symptoms and can cause death.

5.  Middle East respiratory syndrome-related Coronavirus: East respiratory syndrome-related Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is spread from camels .This is the reason why this virus also known as camel flu. This virus is a member of Betacoronavirus, and its symptoms vary from mild to severe like fever, cough, diarrhea, and shortness of breath. It requires close contact to spread from an infected person to others. This disease is more severe in those who have a low immune system or have other health issues.

6. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infects humans, bats, and civets. This virus is also a member of Betacoronavirus genus and subgenus Sarbecoronavirus. This enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus infects the epithelial cells within the lungs. The severe acute respiratory syndrome is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV genome. Its starts initially from symptoms of muscle pain, headache, and fever, and then slowly it shows sign of respiratory symptoms like cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia in 2-14 days.In 2003, during the SARS outbreak, about 9% of patients died. Those who are above 60years are the ones affected by this virus.

7. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is informally known as the Coronavirus.This virus causes a respiratory illness known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This virus is discovered first in Wuhan, China, so sometimes called a Wuhan Virus. This virus is bat-borne. This virus spread from close-contact from an infected person or via respiratory droplets caused by coughs and sneezes in a range of 1.6 meters. This virus is spreading very fastly from Human-to-human and created the most number of deaths in the world. The World health organization declared this as the 2019-20 Coronavirus pandemic. Death due to Coronavirus are mainly those who have a low immune system or have other health issues like Diabetes, Asthma, High BP, or Heart Disease.

Is There Two Strain SARS-COV-2?

As per the analysis of 103 cases, New Coronavirus having two strains are spreading around the world. It also says the virus of type RNA like Coronavirus SARS-CoV2 always mutating or changing. As per Ian Jones at the University of Reading, Uk said then when a person gets infected with Coronavirus. It starts replicating in their respiratory tract, and whenever it reproduced, it produces a half a dozen genetic mutations. 

World Health Organization does not agree with this fact that Coronavirus 2 is a mutation ( or changing).

Xiaolu Tan took the 103 cases of viral genome at Peking University, Beijing. They identified two different types of viruses based on minor differences in the genome. These two different types are known as “L-type” and “S-Type.” In this study, 72 were of “L-type,” and 29 were of “S-type.” Separate research also suggests that L-type is more aggressive then S-type. 

What Are the Symptoms of COVID-19?

According to the World Health Organization, early symptoms of Coronavirus are:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Fatigue or Tiredness
  • Runny nose
  • Nasal congestions
  • Aches and pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Losing sense of taste or smell (rare)

About 80% of the Covid-19 cases are mild, like a regular cold, and people recovered without any special treatment. And the remaining 20% have a higher risk of serious illness. It may cause pneumonia, respiratory failure, septic shock, and death. Most of the 20% of cases are older people with medical issues like high B.P., heart problems, asthma, or diabetes.

The National Health Service (NHS), the U.K. has identified the most common symptoms to look for :

  • High Temperature 
  • New Continuous Cough

As of now, there are no antibiotics or antiviral drugs discovered to date, which can work against Coronavirus. People with a sound immune system recover quickly from this virus.

There are few severe symptoms which need attention:

  • Ongoing chest pain or pressure

· Problem in breathing or shortness of breath

If you get infected by Coronavirus, the above symptoms can show up in 2 days to 14 days.

 How to identify that its Coronavirus, Flu, or common cold?

There is no guarantee to identify Coronavirus without the test. But yes, there are some basic rules to mark people like the suspect of COVID-19

  • A patient with high fever and at least one sign/ symptom of respiratory disease (e.g., cough, shortness of breath) as well as have travel history of places where Coronavirus has spread.
  • A patient with high fever and at least one sign/ symptom of respiratory disease (e.g., cough, shortness of breath) as well as being in contact with confirmed COVID-19 patient.

What Caused the New Coronavirus?

Coronavirus can affect different species of animals as well as people. Earlier two severe virus MERS and SARS also linked to animals. As per the Chinese Government, Coronavirus starts from bats in Wuhan, China. It started from the wet market i.e., seafood and animal market in China, where animal to person and then spread from person to person. 

What Is Community Spread?

This term is used now a day’s very frequently all over the world. This term is used by Health officials and doctors when the source of infection is not known.

In the Case of COVID-19, Community Spread refers when a person gets infected by the virus without that person having travel history recently or not in touch with someone who traveled aboard recently or who has been suffering from COVID-19.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in California recorded the first case of community spread if COVID-19. A person with no recent travel history of affected area or exposed to anyone with Coronavirus infection.

How Fast Is It Spreading?

Coronavirus spread across the world. And there is no vaccine yet developed. That is why thousands of people died. You can check the latest updated coronavirus cases on our website.

How to Prevent the Spread of Coronavirus?

As we all know, the development of the Coronavirus vaccine will take some time for now. So, it’s better to prevent the spreading by the below steps:

  • Wash your hands: To kill the virus on hands, wash your hands with soap and water, or with alcohol-based sanitizer frequently.
  • Social distancing: If we maintain social distancing with people and live in isolation for sometime then we can stop spreading this virus. It may be possible that you are infected with Coronavirusand have no idea about it. So if you follow social distancing then you stop spreading virus. If you have to go outside for some work later, try to maintain the social distancing with people and maintain 6 feet distance. 
  • Avoid touching your face: To avoid infected by Coronavirus, we also have to prevent touch our face regularly. As Coronavirus stays on surfaces for hours and if we touch those surfaces and then touch our face with hands then it can go inside your body and make you infected. ‘
  • Stay Clean, Stay Healthy: We must stay clean so that virus cannot remain on our body. It is also necessary to clean or disinfect the surface, which we touch regularly. Try to clean the surfaces like tables , doorknobs , light switches , toilet and faucets and sinks with household bleach or cleaner which is approved by government to treat SARS-COV-2. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the list of disinfectant which can use against Coronavirus. 

How to Wash Your Hands

Wash your hands with soap and water. Scrub your hands for 20 seconds with soap then rinse with water. The best technique you can follow in cleaning your hands.

When to wear a face mask

Face Mask is essential to wear by those who either exposed to SARS-Cov2 or already have COVID-19. Also, it’s necessary to wear a mask by those who are working in any health care organization. And also taking care of someone who already has COVID-19.

But for precautionary measures, if you go outside, it is better to wear a mask as you may come in contact with someone who exposed to COVID-19.

Is There a Vaccine?

No, their vaccines are developed by any company to prevent Coronavirus SARS-CoV2 infection. The clinical trial is going on in many countries like the U.S. and China to test the vaccine for Coronavirus SARS-CoV2.

Recently, a vaccine called mRNA-1273 by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the Moderna, INC, a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with their collaborators. This vaccine is developed by using Messenger RNA (mRNA) –a genetic platform. This vaccine is already tested on animals and shown great results by forcing the body cells to release virus protein that will make robust the immune system to fight against the COVID19 virus. Now this vaccine will go through the human trial.

What Is the Treatment for COVID-19?

There is no specific treatment yet discovered for COVID-19, and also no vaccine currently available for the treatment of COVID-19. Right now, treatment for covid19 is symptomatic. For the patient with severe infection, oxygen therapy has shown excellent results and can be one of the significant inventions for the treatment of COVID-19.For oxygen therapy to respiratory failure refractory, Mechanical ventilation is necessary. For septic shock, hemodynamic support is essential.

Antibiotics are not working to treat COVID-19, as antibiotics can treat bacteria but no viruses. But yes, antibiotics are provided to all those patients who have an infection that come along COVID-19 disease.

In short, the best treatment for covid-19 is prevention. So try to follow the prevention mentioned above to remain safe with this global epidemic caused by covid-19.